fan efficiency formula

Stay tuned to be able to search FEI rated fans … The Static Efficiency Equation Static efficiency is the product of the volume and pressure you need in your application divided by the product of the conversion constant and horsepower, as follows: Why Fan Static Efficiency Matters You can use the maximum static efficiency to determine the horsepower you need in your application. If the wheel velocity is constant - the affinity laws for change in impeller diameter can be simplified to. Fans use approximately 40% of all electricity in HVAC systems. of static pressure will be fan-power limited at a level that is three times greater than the target efficiency would indicate. Both the formulas are used in SI units and in general the work done theory the amount of air handle by a fan against a pressure is called work done and dividing workdone 1 Despite all the textbooks and handbooks, which describe the proper procedure for selection of fans, practice shows that fans in existing HVAC systems have very low total efficiency. For fan manufacturers, the strategic intent became: Ten AMCA members, seven HVAC manufacturers (members and staff of the Air-Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration Institute), four efficiency advocates, and representatives from the National Environmental Balancing Bureau, Cooling Technology Institute, National Electrical Manufacturers Association, and DOE participated in 19 days of meetings between May and September 2015. Using the formula given by Ted as Watt = m3/sec x pressure (pa). Note that the flow and pressure constants in the FEP formula (250 cfm and 0.4-in. Online education: Fan Efficiency: Lowering Fan Energy Use, Regulation of commercial, industrial fan efficiency, Multi-family housing design trends driven by COVID-19, Consulting-Specifying Engineer most-viewed articles, November 2020, Ask an expert: Justin Garner provides input on COVID-19, Virtual reality challenges, solutions for A/E firms, Weekly merger and acquisition update: November 27, 2020, Designing, retrofitting hospitals during COVID: Sustainability. A higher percentage represents a more efficient engine. Fig 2shows the pressures through a fan, each of which is described below: Inlet Pressure; is the static pressure on the inlet side of the fan. This database enabled analysis of a statistically significant confidential sample of the market. This may seem like an unreasonable "gift" for smaller fans and lower pressures, but higher losses at low flows, low pressures, and in small fans are inescapable. Fans for use with toxic, corrosive or flammable gasses or subject to abrasive substances. We expect that the DOE regulation will require that FEI ratings must tie to FEP levels that are certified by the manufacturer to DOE. 1 mmWC = 9.81Pa. For determining the airflow efficiency, the measured CFM is divided by the amount of energy (in Watts) that is used up when the fan is being operated at its maximum speed level. Thanks! Join the community and register for a free guest account to post a reply. This means the marketplace will determine what fan competitors do to boost efficiency while DOE will dictate the maximum power allowed, driving engineer specifications to demand higher efficiency either with a larger fan or a more aerodynamic shape. Here is another way to think of this: A fan running at 0.2-in. A fan’s total efficiency is defined as the ratio of theoretical air horsepower (AHP) to the actual brake-horsepower (BHP) input to the fan shaft. FEI is the ratio of the maximum power allowed by the DOE standard to the actual power of the fan selection at every (any) combination of airflow and pressure rise, rather than at a defined test point or points (such as peak efficiency used by FEG and FMEG or some other defined flow and pressure). Note that the flow and pressure constants in the FEP formula (250 cfm and 0.4-in. In both the cases the power is same , I dont think there is any confusions now. 6.5.3.1.3 Fan Efficiency. Let us assume a fan having a flow of volume 16m3/sec and devlops a total pressure of 500 mmH2O. The FEI metric, which applies to fans alone and fan/motor or fan/motor/drive combinations, effectively extends the conventional DOE regulatory approach beyond the fan design to address motor, transmission, variable speed drive, and fan selection. The terms sheet recommends a long list of exclusions, either because fan energy is already part of another DOE regulation, the fan application requires a design that compromises efficiency, or because the fan type is so rarely used that its aggregate energy use is trivial. Fan efficiency metrics tend to be defined in terms of total pressure. 2.4. Summarize the consensus recommendation that will guide the Department of Energy fan-efficiency rule. So, it should be;-1mmwc = 9.8 Pa or 1Pa = 0.102 mmwc. Fan Total Efficiency = Motor Efficiency * Fan Efficiency, so you can adjust your fan total efficiency accordingly if you know the change in motor efficiency. Pt = Total pressure, in. The fan efficiency formula is in SI units. where: LW= sound power level (dB) KW= specific sound power level depending on the type of fan (see Fig 9-3), from empirical data provided by fan manufacturer Q = volume flow rate (cfm) P = total pressure (inches of H20) BFI = Blade Frequency … Fan and blower selection depends on the volume flow rate, pressure, type of material handled, space limitations, and efficiency. Search Products And Discover New Innovations In Your Industry. As explained by Ted ,I am only showing you an example for calculation in both the units and I hope you doubt will be clear. Rectangular Fin For cylindrical: Afin=πDL+ πD2 4 By Wade W. Smith, PE, Wade W. Smith Consulting LLC, Chetek, Wis. Air Movement and Control Association International, Appliance Standards Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee, ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, ASHRAE Standard 189.1: Standard for the Design of High-Performance Green Buildings, Air-Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration Institute, National Electrical Manufacturers Association. th= qfin hAfin(Tb−T∞), Tf=T∞,and Afin=2Ac+Atip (Square and Recatngular ) 1.35 Atip=t×W Fig. Efficiency is defined as the air power divided by the fan input power. For those outside the fan industry, this may seem like an unreasonable regulatory burden, but not so for those who make, rate, and sell fans. While low-pressure fans use less power as they increase in diameter, it is impractical to drive low-pressure fans to become too large. Minimize the negative financial impact on small-business manufacturers and customers, Facilitate prescriptive efficiency rebates that are effective and easy to administer, Belt-drive centrifugal-powered roof ventilators: 35% of selections, Belt-drive axial-powered roof ventilators: 50% of selections, Belt-drive in-line centrifugal and mixed-flow fans: 40% of selections. Efficiency advocates and AMCA jointly recommended that DOE establish target efficiencies such that the weighted average noncompliance rate of fan selections sold in 2012 is no greater than 25%, and the noncompliance rate of selections in the following categories does not exceed the values listed below: AMCA provided the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab-which analyzed data for the DOE-with a database of 1.3 million fan selections that were sold in 2012. Regulating to raise actual fan operating efficiency would not be practical without these laws. Where: CFM = Fan flow rate, ft3/min. Ps = Static pressure, in. 4 Examples of the Efficiency Formula posted by John Spacey, June 27, 2017. In other words, if the target efficiency in the DOE formula were 63%, the operating efficiency requirement for this selection at 0.2-in. wg. This renders the traditional regulatory approach ineffective. They are most useful for determining the impact of extrapolating from a known fan performance to a desired performance. ASHRAE Handbook) LW= KW+ 10 log10Q + 20 log10P +BFI +CN. When you multiply fan area (square ft), fan speed (ft/s) and fan pressure (iwg), your units come out to be ft^3*iwg/s. This new approach will be transformational to model codes and standards for energy efficiency including ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, ASHRAE Standard 189.1: Standard for the Design of High-Performance Green Buildings, and the International Energy Conservation Code. Using the formula given in books using mmH2O as pressure, Kw = (m3/sec x Pressure mmH2O)  /102  = 16 x 500 /102 = 78.4 Kw, 2. 3, Cement Plant Operations Handbook 7th Edition, Global Cement Trade & Distribution Handbook 2nd Edition, Cement Plant Environmental Handbook 2nd Edition, 8-11 February 2021, Cemtech Middle East & Africa Virtual Event, Selecting and using raw materials for cement manufacture, Alternative fuels for firing cement kilns, Global Cement Report 13, December 2019 Database. FEI requirements also will appear in engineer specifications, rebate programs, in stretch codes, and in ASHRAE standards before the DOE rule goes into effect. 12 issues of the leading cement industry magazine, your choice of complimentary handbook, plus unlimited access to CemNet.com News, Articles and HD Videos. We expect that the consensus terms sheet will guide DOE’s draft of fan-efficiency regulation, to be published very soon. Click here to take a four-week course on commercial and industrial fan efficiency. pressure differential, respectively) effectively raise the power input allowed at lower flows and pressures. The equation that describes fan total efficiency can be expressed as: È  t = (AHP/BHP) x 100. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2013 requires fans have a fan-efficiency grade (FEG), as defined in AMCA 205, Energy Efficiency Classification for Fans, of 67 or higher. So, to use mmwc in the formula, you need to convert the mmwc into Pascals by dividing by 0.102. The Fan Laws are a group of useful equations for determining the effects of a change in the speed, the diameter of the fan and the density of air in the system. This peak efficiency is used to The pressure constant solves this issue. Static efficiency uses static pressure, which does not include the kinetic energy, to calculate the effi-ciency. New fan-efficiency metrics developed by AMCA International—fan energy index (FEI) and fan electrical power (FEP)—can be used to right-size fans and reduce power consumption in commercial and industrial air systems. That is why the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a novel approach, which would reward rightsizing fans in addition to improved aerodynamic design. For efficiency advocates, the objective was to save as much energy as possible. The sound power produced by centrifugal and axial fans can be approximated by a simple equation (ref. The fan efficiency is in general independent of the air density and can be expressed as: μ f = dp q / P (2) where. The best forecast is that the target static efficiency for non-ducted fans will be 62% at the fan shaft, and the target total efficiency for ducted fans will be 68% at the fan shaft. Unfortunately, a fan’s efficiency does not behave like the efficiency of other products. ie. Page DOE’s nomenclature is slightly different than in the white paper-DOE refers to FEI, which includes motor and drive losses, while the AMCA paper refers to fan-efficiency ratio (FER), which considers the fan only. Air Flow must be in m3/s, Pressure must be in Pascals, and Power must be in Watts. Fan efficiencies differ from design to design and also by types. To convert this to horsepower, you need to divide by 6356. would be only 21%. Static Fan Efficiency = Volume (m3/s) * Pressure gain (Pa) / Power input (W) * 100. AMCA expects that FEI ratings will become the most common description of fan efficiency in the marketplace, because FEI uses this FEP standard as defined in the first DOE rule as the benchmark against which fan efficiency will be compared forever. CAN ANYBODY SHARE THE HOW TO DERIVE FAN EFFICIENCY FORMULA. Volume Capacity. AMCA also used this database to estimate what target efficiency levels match with the 25% average noncompliance rate and determine the higher limits on the least efficient categories described above. The fan laws are a group of equations used to determine the effects of changes in the fan operating speed, the fan diameter or the density of the air in the system. The maximum fan shaft power allowed by DOE at the design point will be calculated in accordance with the following equation: No other DOE regulation is applied at all conceivable operating conditions. wg Pt = Total pressure, in. In Sweden, ECiS AB (Energy Concept in Sweden) performed performance measurements of 767 fans in existing HVAC systems between the years 2005 and 2009. These are documented in ISO 12759 and the Air Movement and Control Association International (AMCA) standard 205, but were not chosen by fan manufacturers in their consensus recommendation to the DOE. CalQlata has tried to keep the operation of this calculation option as simple as possible, given that it is recommended for general purpose calculations only and not for actual purchase specifications (see Fan Calculator – Technical Helpbelow). Both static and total efficiency can be calculated from fan performance data as follows: Fig 1: FEG Formula. So, the peculiar nature of fan efficiency (which can be nearly anything, depending on conditions) comes with the blessing of fan laws that provide a means to deal with the challenge. so 102 value comes in numerator instead of denomenator. In other words, the DOE will regulate based on FEP at the design point only (full speed), but may authorize the use of an inflated FEI in marketing materials and product labels that benefit from variable-speed control. Details of the FEI metric are documented in an AMCA white paper, downloadable from its website. pressure differential, respectively) effectively raise the power input allowed at lower flows and pressures. It is a measure of the total mechanical energy added to the air by the fan. Lets call the pressure measured in mmwc, Pmmwc. Only a minor share of the fans had t… ): Velocity Pressure: Flowrate (CFM): Cross Sectional Flow Area (sq. Discuss how FEI is deterministically linked to projected energy savings, and how it can be used in specifications, codes, standards, and utility programs. FEGs are detailed in AMCA 205 and ISO 12749. Air Cooled Heat Exchanger Sizing does preliminary estimation of Finned Area, Plot Size, Total Fan Power and Air Outlet Temperature CheCalc Chemical engineering calculations to assist process, plant operation and maintenance engineers. Both a larger fan and a better aerodynamic shape have cost and strategic implications to fan manufacturers and their customers. Other rules choose representative test conditions, which provide a fair indicator of a product’s relative efficiency during operation. Static Fan Efficiency (%): Brake Horsepower (HP): Air Density: Barometric Pressure (in Hg): Temperature (F) Density (lb/Cu.ft. 1. BHP = Fan power input, hp. This represented 46% of the United States market in the regulated range. Fan efficiencies differ from design to design and also by types. Rebate programs are likely to require DOE certification of FEP and compliance with the DOE test standard requirements. and Total Efficiency can be calculated from fan performance data as follows: Where: CFM 3= Fan flow rate, ft /min Ps = Static pressure, in. The basic formula is a ratio of output to input expressed as a percentage: efficiency = (output / input) × 100. The good news is that compliant fans are available in production today. It can be found by multiplying the Mechanical efficiency by the ratio of the fan static pres-sure to the fan total pressure. by time will give you the power. Fans shall have a Fan Efficiency Grade (FEG) of 67 or higher based on manufacturers’ certified data, as defined by AMCA 205. The efficiency formula is a measure of the efficiency of processes and machines. Under the terms sheet resulting from a public DOE-sponsored Appliance Standards Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) negotiation, the DOE is expected to adopt a new fan-efficiency metric called a fan energy index, or FEI. You can include thi… The total efficiency of the fan at the design point of operation shall be within 15 percentage points of the maximum total efficiency of the fan. The DOE standard will establish a maximum input power (called FEPstd, or fan electrical-input power) that varies with flow and pressure at the fan design point. Because the efficiency curve of a fan is bell shaped, specifying a relatively high FEG by itself will not necessarily result in high fan efficiency. What this means is that for a fan handling standard atmospheric air with a density of 1.2 kg/m3 and a static efficiency of … That means that the regulation applies to an infinite set of conditions that define the particular design/selection points (airflows and pressure rises) offered for sale. Search Products And Discover New Innovations In Your Industry!! To realize the potential efficiency of a fan, the fan must operate near its peak efficiency. dp1 / dp2 = (d1 / … But, if the pressure is measured in mmWC instead of Pascals and Power is expressed in kW, the formula can be derived as follows;-. FANS AND BLOWERS Bureau of Energy Efficiency 87 6.1 Introduction This section describes the method of testing a fan installed on site in order to determine the performance of the fan in conjunction with the system to which it is connected. The final rule will become mandatory 5 years after the final version is published However, DOE will invite manufacturers to use the DOE metric and test standard sooner and will accept certifications early (probably in 2017), so the engineers and utility rebate programs may begin to specify DOE-certified efficiency levels 3 to 4 years early. Typical ranges of fan efficiencies are given in Table 5.2. Certification of fan performance also must be done at any and all operating conditions offered for sale in the regulated range. wg. A fan with variable speed must still comply with the design-point FEP requirements. I TRIED A LOT BUT HOW 102 IS COMING IN DENOMINATOR ? While fan efficiency varies with aerodynamic shape, under-sizing fans to reduce first cost has a stronger negative influence on fan efficiency. DOE announced its intention to regulate commercial and industrial fan efficiency on June 30, 2011. ft.) Velocity Pressure (in. This should also include the velocity pressure on the inlet side (if known) that is constant and in-line with the fan. The factor of 102 is used to convert mmWC into pascals because the formula for the static fan efficiency in SI units is;-, Static Fan Efficiency =  Volume (m3/s) * Pressure gain (Pa) /  Power input (W) * 100, But, if the pressure is measured in mmWC instead of Pascals and Power is expressed in kW, the formula can be derived as follows;-, Therefore 1Pa = 1/9.81 = 0.102 mmWC  (or, divide mmWC by 0.102 to get Pa), So, Static Fan Efficiency =  [Volume (m3/s) * Pressure gain (mmWC) / 0.102] /  [Power input (kW) * 1000] * 100, or  Static Fan Efficiency = [Volume (m3/s) * Pressure gain (mmWC)]  /  [Power input (kW) * 1000 * 0.102] *100, or  Static Fan Efficiency = [Volume (m3/s) * Pressure gain (mmWC)] *100 /  [Power input (kW) * 102], efficiency = m3/s X 0.102 mmwc *100/( motor kw x motoe eff.). In such cases, the standard or minimum CFM to label a fan as an efficient one is considered to be 75. Curing a noncompliant selection can be done with either a larger fan or a more aerodynamic design. Typical ranges of fan efficiencies are given in Table 5.2. The energy efficiency formula is based on energy output and input.energy efficiency = (energy output / energy input) × 100Energy output is the useful energy offered by an item such as the light generated by a light bulb. Explain the proposed efficiency metrics of fan electrical power (FEP) and the fan energy index (FEI). Fans where the work per unit mass exceeds 25 kJ/kg. μ f = fan efficiency (values between 0 - 1) dp = total pressure (Pa) q = air volume delivered by the fan (m 3 /s) P = power used by the fan (W, Nm/s) The power used by the fan can be expressed as: Fan and blower selection depends on the volume flow rate, pressure, type of material handled, space limita-tions, and efficiency. Consulting-Specifying Engineer published the first part in this series in June, which explained the peak-based metrics called fan-efficiency grade and fan motor efficiency grade (FEG and FMEG). You are getting confusions for change in unit from mmH2O to Pascal. It is applicable to (bare shaft and driven) fans, as well as fans integrated into products. The final consensus vote showed support for a comprehensive terms sheet from all except two participants. Example 1 The pressure and flow constants in the FEP formula correctly represent the actual map of efficiency degradation exhibited by the most efficient aerodynamic fans available as flows and pressures decline. Wade W. Smith led the DOE’s rulemaking negotiations for the fan industry. The pressure constant increases the allowable power at lower pressure levels, recognizing the practical limitation of "zero efficiency at "zero" differential pressure. Definitions Efficiency, Hp, FP, Iac, Idc and Volts: E (Efficiency) = The efficiency of the motor is the ratio between the amount of mechanical work performed and the electrical energy consumed to do the job, represented by a percentage. Most commercial fans also consume their initial cost in energy expense in less than 1 year. The flow constant produces a result that is similar to the FEG curves, recognizing that very small fans (and low flows) are less efficient due to the physics of airflow. The average total efficiency of all the fans was only 33% (Figure 1). All fans offered for sale at operating conditions that require 1 to nominally 200 brake horsepower will be covered by the rule unless they are on an exclusion list. (Note that 0.2 plus a pressure constant of 0.4 equals 0.6, which is three times greater than 0.2.) ISO 12759:2010 specifies requirements for classification of fan efficiency for all fan types driven by motors with an electrical input power range from 0,125 kW to 500 kW. While DOE will judge compliance strictly based on FEP (fan electrical power; electrical power supplied to the fan assembly), the DOE test standard will describe FEI as the ratio of the FEP standard (maximum power input allowed, as described above) over the FEP (actual power input) of the fan at its design point. Every fan can be both very efficient and very inefficient, depending on what flow and pressure at which it operates. The best forecast is that the target static efficiency for non-ducted fans will be 62% at the fan shaft, and the target total efficiency for ducted fans will be 68% at the fan shaft. 6.2 Purpose of the Performance Test Fan totalpressure is the total pressure (static pressure plus velocity pressure) at the fan outlet minus the total pressure at the fan inlet. He now consults on related questions with HVAC manufacturers and component suppliers. Know the answer to this question? That is why the DOE regulatory standard must be applied to any and all operating conditions. Fans consume about 18% of electricity purchased in commercial and industrial buildings. This ratio is 1.0 or greater for all compliant fan selections. Since then, the AMCA worked to develop a consensus that was acceptable to fan manufacturers and efficiency advocates, which include the National Resource Defense Council, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Appliance Standards Awareness Project, Northeast Energy Efficiency Association, Southern California utilities, and others. The fan efficiency is the ratio between power transferred to airflow and the power used by the fan. The Fan Total Efficiency field (simply 'Fan Efficiency' in OpenStudio) will need to be adjusted to represent the change in motor efficiency and fan power consumed. wg BHP = Fan power input, hp Static and total fan efficiency (Figure 1) can be plotted along with the fan curve. H2O) Round Duct Equivelent of Rectangular Duct: The peak total efficiency occurs at the top of the “bell” shaped efficiency curve. AMCA Standard 205 recommends that all selections be made within 15 percentage points of the peak TE. industrial process instruments and controls: tel: 1-925-706-7433 fax: 1-925-706-2583 Fans integrated into products are measured as stand-alone fans. Fans are ruled by well-ordered laws of physics, collectively called "the fan laws," which enable one to run a 20-minute fan lab test at one speed and accurately rate that fan and other larger fans at untested speeds. Belt-drive forward-curved fans: 45% of selections. Fans fall … of Click here to take a four-week course on commercial and industrial fan efficiency. Static efficiency is a ratio of the fan power output to the power supplied to the fan. q1 / q2 = (d1 / d2)3 (1b) Head or Pressure.

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